Online seminar for volunteering at Europe's (external) borders
2. Racism, Eurocentrism, White-Saviour-
As volunteers working with and supporting people on the move, we think it is very important to critically engage with structural racism, the concepts of Eurocentrism, voluntourism and the so-called ‘White-Saviour-Complex’. Don't be put off by the complicated terms if you don't know them. Click on each of the four concepts for a short definition and an explanation why they play an important role in this context..
In Short: What does racism mean?
- Racism is a global social phenomenon that cannot be viewed isolated from its historical connection with colonialism, enslavement, economic exploitation and the emergence of capitalism, which impacts today’s society in large.
- Racism is a very broad concept. It is therefore not always easy to recognise racism in all its facets and manifestations immediately:
- Racism can be expressed in a very clear and obvious manner, for example by people who declare their racist and xenophobic attitude openly. In this, humans are explicitely seen and treated as less-human or less-worthy merely because of their birth place, their outward appearance, their religious believe or culture. This also includes denying other people safety by manifesting human-made geographical borders.
- Racism also manifests itself in other forms of subconscious individual behaviour, thought and language, but also in our institutions and law. It is much more difficult to point out these subliminal and complex forms of racism. Our society and therefore all of us carry many of those unconscious forms of racism with us, as they have been existent for centuries. Therefore, it is always important and necessary to deal with racism responsibly, even if you already understand yourself as anti-racist.
Definition of terms
Global North and Global South:
The political classification of Global South and Global North refers to the different experiences with colonialism and exploitation - on the one hand as profiteers and on the other hand as primarily exploited. The term Global South is used to describe the social, political and economic position of societies and countries which are today disadvantaged in the global system as a result of colonialism and imperialism. The Global North, on the other hand, defines the position of global advantages and economic power.
While terms such as ‘developing countries’ express a certain illusion of global developmental stages which some societies have already fulfilled while others haven’t, the terms Global South and North attempt to name the overall different political, economic and cultural positions.
The division into South and North is only partially a geographical division. Australia, for example, just like Germany, belongs to the majority of the Global North, because the majority of the population enjoys a privileged economic position. But in both countries there are also people who are part of the Global South, for example Aboriginal Australians or illegalised persons in Germany. Inversely, even in countries that are mostly part of the Global South, there are people who enjoy the privileged position of the Global North, either because they are white or because they belong to the globally privileged class due to economic resources.
Black & white:
We use the terms Black and white here as terms that represent political and social constructions: They do not necessarily refer to the colour of people's skin, but their position in a society. This describes the matter of an unequal distribution of power, in which white can assert structural interests over Black in a society. “Black” is one of the self-designations of people affected by racism, as alternatives to numerous racial slurs sometimes used by mainstream society (which need not be mentioned here). As a political instead of a merely descriptive term it is therefore written with a capital B. Whiteis explicitly written in cursive to indicate the dominant position of power, which otherwise usually remains invisible. This is important, because if only part of humans are named by such a political category and is given an additional adjective, the unnamed part is implicitly considered ‘normal’.
Person/People of Colour (PoC):
The term Person or People of Colour (PoC) refers to all racialised people who have African, Asian, Latin American, Arab, Jewish, indigenous or Pacific origins or backgrounds in varying proportions. It is also a self-designation of people affected by racism and was developed as a political term in the 1960s. The term connects those who are devalued by white dominance and thus acts against the colonial strategy of isolation (‘divide and rule’). The term BIPoC stems from the US-American context and means “Black, Indigenous and People of Color”.
Consequences of racism
- When groups of people are divided into ‘we/us’ and ‘the others’ because of their nationality, their looks, their believe or place of birth, it’s racism.
Have a look at this short video
- If only certain people can easily get a visa to travel the world while others have to risk a dangerous journey across the Mediterranean in a rubber boat to try and find safety, it’s racism.
Have a look at the Henley-Passport-Index which shows how many countries you can travel to without a visa with which passport.
- If people are given a certain value depending on how productive they are considered to be and all asylum and migration law is basically based on this, it’s racism.
Our reading tip : Achille Mbembe - Critique of Black Reason)
- This profounder form of racism is also called structural racism.
- We all have racist patterns of behavior and thought inside of us because we grew up and were socialised in a racist world.
- We all live in structures that privilege certain people and discriminate against others.
- These structures have developed historically in the course of colonisation and the systematic oppression and exploitation of large groups of people and continue to do so today.
- Precisely because it is a structural phenomenon, racism is less bound to single individuals, but rather is implemented in ideas, in world views, in media representations, in the work of institutions, in international law. Small, perhaps even seemingly harmless questions or comments about the appearance or origin of people can therefore be racist due to their structural roots.
You don't have to be a racist to think racist, to reproduce racism or to profit from racism. White people of the Global North benefit from these privileges whether they actively want to or not. If you belong to this privileged group, there is little you can do about it at first. However, you should always be aware of your position and deal with it critically and reflectively. The following topics and explanations will help you to critically examine your own position and its significance in relation to humanitarian aid work.
What does this mean for you and your work with people on the move?
- Do not try to deny your own racism: Because the traces of racism in our society are structural and profound, no one can exclude themselves from them just by not acknowledging them. They shape and influence our socialisation, our thoughts and our actions. It is therefore all the more important to recognise one's own ways of thinking, ideas and images shaped by racism, to become aware of them and then to actively counteract them.
- Get to know the perspective of those affected: White people (often) cannot see discrimination of PoC because they themselves are not affected by it. This does not mean, however, that you should or have the right to interrogate affected people about their experiences of discrimination. There are many articles, videos, podcasts and books in which people affected by racism share their experiences for others to get an understanding and learn. We have provided a small selection for you below.
- Become aware of your responsibility: White people have the privilege of not having to deal with racism because they are not affected by it, but this means that white people have a (historically grown) responsibility to actively and self-critically deal with their own racisms and to fight against them. This also means questioning and fighting racist institutions and laws.
- Deal with your own stereotypes, prejudices and your own Eurocentric perspective: Try to rethink your own ideas about people and groups of people and to expose and discard prejudices. Critically question your own idea of how people and societies ‘have to develop’ and to what extent this idea is shaped by your own origins.
More tips on literature or videos on this topic:
- Erklärungsvideo zu Alltagsrassismus: How micro aggressions are like mosquito bites
- Ted Talk by Chimananda Ngozi Adichie The danger of a single story
- Also take a look at the books “Why I'm No Longer Talking to White People About Race” by Reni Eddo Lodge,
- or “White Fragility” by Robin DiAngelo
What does Eurocentrism mean?
- Eurocentrism refers to an attitude that places European ways of living, thinking and acting, norms and values, or those understood as ‘Western’, unquestioningly at the centre and as the standard.
- This does not refer only to the phenomenon that a person’s experience and belief system is always grounded on cultural and social specifics, on what people are used to and know from their upbringing - as this counts for everyone. Rather, Eurocentrism is about an active and globally reproduced dissociation from ‘the others’ it is a devaluation of the latter and a subsequent self-exaltation of ‘one's own’. Eurocentrism (which is considered part of ethnocentrism) is therefore not about trying to understand other cultures or ways of life better, but keeping up and legitimising certain hierarchies.
- The fact that these European or ‘Western’ norms, values and ways of life claim worldwide validity originates to a large extent from colonial history and its consequences, which are still manifested today.
Consequences of Eurocentrism
- Colonial history brought about a strong imbalance in the global distribution of wealth and therefore power in favour of the Global North. This imbalance still exists today and is reproduced and even reinforced in global capitalism and exploitation of labour.
- One consequence of this unequal global distribution of power is that the position to define what is the standard, the norm and what desirable is taken by the Global North.
- Based on the assumption that the cultural and political systems of Europe (liberal democracies based on Christian values) represent the ideal model of universal reason and human development, Europe or ‘the West’ is seen as the benchmark of social analysis and political practice.
- This presumption of superiority is often accompanied by the assumption that ‘the others’ are in a backward stage of their political, social or cultural development.
- The mindset that non-European or non-Western societies remain at a stage which ‘the West’ has already overcome also leads to the arrogant attitude that ‘the West’ must help them in some kind of progressive development.
- These classifications into ‘progressive’ and ‘backward’ are not objective truths, but European constructions and fantasies designed to keep the Global North and Europeans or white People in a position of supremacy.
- For example, by explaining the unequal economic and political relations between the Global North and the Global South by saying that ‘the others’ are not yet as modern, progressive, developed as ‘ourselves’, we make it easy for ourselves: We hold the people of the Global South responsible for the situation and deny our own responsibility.
- Such narratives ensure that the violent colonial past and the current political and economic conditions that have arisen from it do not need to be addressed.
- At the same time, we can perceive the benefits we derive from it on a daily basis as our own achievement and pretend that we are entitled to them almost as a matter of course - even though it is not our personal merit. This way, inequality is constructed as a natural fact. t follows, that not addressing such complex history and one's own advantage in society is an active, interest-driven action and not simply innocent ignorance or forgetting.
You can read more about eurocentrism in relation to the work of international organisations here (in German):
- Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung: Eurozentrismus in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
- This document by glokal e.V. is highly recommended by us: Mit Kolonialen Grüßen
What does this mean for you and your work with people on the move?
- Reflect on your perspective and your evaluation of other people's actions: During your work with people from other countries of origin and cultural backgrounds, you will probably find yourself in situations where people make decisions, act or react differently than you would have done. You may find this difficult to understand based on your upbringing and experiences. However, it is important that you respect other perspectives and stay non-judgemental and objective - of course, only as long as everyone including you feels comfortable and no one is hurt.
- Reflect your own eurocentric attitude: Try to recognise where and in what form you follow eurocentric thinking. The following questions may help you:
- How could the people I work with, my team members, but also the local population, perceive and judge certain situations considering their socialisation and cultural background?
- What do I assume about people and their behaviour? What norms and standards do I need to question?
- Are there ethical principles in your own world view that set limits to accepting the values and practices of other cultures?
- Mind the following principles : Humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence are the basic pillars of humanitarian aid. It follows to treat all people with respect and always make sure that no individual or group is favoured or neglected. .
- Don't be instructive: The people you will be working with have different ways of life, experiences and mostly traumatic stories of flight. You may not be able to understand some of their choices or thoughts, because you may not understand their experiences, habits or preferences. Be careful not to put your opinions and decisions above theirs and never try to teach them.
What does the White-Saviour-Complex mean?
- White-Saviour-Complex describes the wrongful idea or belief that it takes the intervention of white people of the Global North to ‘save’ other (non-white) people from oppression or simply from their living situation that is perceived as insufficient.
- The White-Saviour-Complex thus describes the phenomenon that people believe (consciously or subconsciously) that their origin, upbringing and education in a country of the Global North gives them the right, knowledge and legitimacy to 'enlighten’ and educate other people. In this, Eurocentrism plays a big role, as shaping or educating what and how usually follows Western / European standards which are believed to be the achievable norm.
- Read more about this in our blog post on the White-Saviour-Complex
Consequences of the White-Saviour-Complex
The phenomenon becomes particularly clear when looking at the numerous motivated but untrained high school graduates from Europe who travel into the world or the Global South in their ‘gap year’ in order to ‘do something good’ or to ‘help’ in so-called aid projects without any qualification, but in search of an adventure.
- The fact that such young unqualified people are nevertheless deployed in projects of so-called ‘development cooperation’ every year emphasises the arrogance of the Global North associated with this format.
- This way, not only historically established hierarchies and racist images of the passive and needy ‘others’ are being reproduced, but complex political and social coherences are also presented in a highly condensed form.
- The phenomenon of the White-Saviour-Complex is not only to be found in the work of Western organisations working in the Global South, but also in the self-portrayal of people in social media or in numerous Hollywood films in which ‘white heroes’ are necessary or central to free other people from their discriminated position.
What does this mean for you and your work with people on the move?
- Be aware of your position and role: As a volunteer with people on the move, especially in humanitarian aid, you will probably find yourself in a situation that includes power dynamics and dependencies that are hard to bear. Be aware of your own position, do not take advantage of it and try to create ways of deferential contact and responsible interaction. (Have a look at our Unit 5 to find out more about this aspect).
- Try to honestly fathom your own motivation : Try to understand why you want to do this job. What motivates you? Maybe you have a desire to ‘do something good’, maybe even a need for gratitude and recognition. Be aware of these aspects and try to reflect on them critically. alk about this with your team mates. It is okay to have such thoughts and wishes, but they should not be the main part of your motivation. You should always meet people on eye level.
- Pay attention to the external impact of your work: Always be aware of the effect your reports or posts can have on social media. (On this topic, have a look at our Unit 6!)
If you want to know more about this topic, we can recommend the following sources (partly in German):
- Article by Arte (2019): White Saviourism: Wenn Hilfe nicht hilfreich ist
- Podcast: No White Saviors
- Satirical Video: Africa For Norway
- Satirical Video: White Savior: The Movie Trailer
What does Voluntourism mean?
- A special phenomenon of today's international voluntary work is the so-called voluntourism, i.e. a combination of ‘volunteering’ and ‘tourism’, with the latter being the main focus. The providers are usually agencies that advertise voluntary work primarily as part of an exciting trip and as an adventure. The qualification and suitability of volunteers for working in the project is less important than their financial possibilities.
- Volunteers often pay large sums of money to participate in these programmes, but in most cases these sums flow mainly into the agencies rather than into the local projects.
- Even very short activities of volunteers, embedded in a larger trip, can be understood as voluntourism.
- In the context of volunteering with people on the move, voluntourism shows itself often in ‘dark tourism’ or ‘disaster tourism’. Numerous people travel to camps and humanitarian projects primarily to get a look at the crisis situation, take pictures and ask people about their flight in order to report about the situation back home. Such volunteering shows touristic and exploitative elements which should never be a priority for volunteering with vulnerable people.
Consequences of Voluntourism
- The benefits of such voluntary work are solely for the benefit of the volunteers themselves: They experience an international and intercultural ‘adventure’, make new acquaintances and friends, can usually use the experience in their CVs and, regardless of the reality, conclude their stay with the feeling of having done ‘something good’ - irrespective of the real impact for people they work with.
- For the people in the host countries, however, this form of voluntary work is usually more harmful than anything else, because the experience and pleasure of the volunteers is prioritised over the actual and sustainable support of the project or the local population.
- Through such forms of volunteering, historically anchored hierarchisations and racist-influenced images of the passive and needy "others" (here: people on the move) are once again reproduced, as it is implied that they should / must be happy about any attention from volunteers regardless of the length and motivation of their stay.
- At the same time, volunteers often lack expertise and qualifications, which is not necessarily the fault of the volunteers, but which must nevertheless be problematised:
- Due to the current situation at Europe's external borders and the lack of political will to change anything about this situation or even to provide professional and trained personnel for this humanitarian crisis, the work of many volunteers in this field is still needed.
- However, this also means that people who do not actually have the necessary qualifications in this area are working in most projects and coordinating them.
- In spite of - or precisely because of - these circumstances, it is all the more important that the projects themselves have a certain stability and are able to function in the long term in the current situation. Projects that fizzle out after a short period of time create expectations or hopes that are then destroyed or disappointed and thus cause a greater deal of damage than they actually do good.
What does this mean for you and your work with people on the move?
- When choosing your organisation, take a close look: Does the organisation you want to work for fulfil a certain degree of sustainability and critical self-reflection? Projects that are well-intentioned but cannot last long enough or make promises they do not keep can cause a lot of damage. Stick to the guiding principle of humanitarian aid: Do no harm!
- Self-critically question your motivation: Try to listen to yourself: Do you find aspects of voyeurism in your motivation? In other words: Does the attraction that such crises and humanitarian disasters sometimes have on us play a decisive role in your motivation? Try to question your reasons self-critically on this basis. Humanitarian aid and working with people on the move should never be disaster tourism, but an act of solidarity.
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